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LPI 117-202 Exam - Cheat-Test.com

Free 117-202 Sample Questions:

NO 1:
What is the minimum number of partitions you need to install Linux?
Answer: 1
Explanation: At a bare minimum, Linux requires just one partition to install and boot.
This is the root partition, which is known as the / partition. However, a minimum of two
partitions is recommended: one for the root partition and one for the swap partition.
Reference: Roderick W. Smith. Sybex Linux + Study Guide: page 37.

NO 2:
What file contains the default environment variables when using the bash shell?
A. ~/.profile
B. /bash
C. /etc/profile
D. ~/bash
Answer: C
Explanation: The file /etc/profile contains shell commands that are executed at login time
for any user whose entry in /etc/passwd has a shell specified in the shell field whose name
ends in sh.
Reference: http://docsrv.caldera.com/cgi-bin/man/man?profile+4
Incorrect Answers:
A: The ~/.profile is the profile file stored in each user's home directory. This file contains
settings that apply to that user only.
B: The default environment variables are stored in the /etc/profile file, not the /bash file.
D: The default environment variables are stored in the /etc/profile file, not the ~/bash file.

NO 3:
You need to delete the group dataproject. Which two of the following tasks should you do first
before deleting the group?
A). Check the /etc/passwd file to make sure no one has this group as his default group.
B). Change the members of the dataproject group to another group besides users.
C). Make sure that members listed in the /etc/group file are given new login names.
D). Verify that no file or directory has this group listed as its owner.
A. A and C
B. A and D
C. B and C
D. B and D
Answer: B
Explanation: You can delete a group by editing the /etc/group file and removing the
relevant line for the group. It's generally better to use groupdel, though, because groupdel
checks to see if the group is any user's primary group. If it is, groupdel refuses to remove the group; you must change the user's primary group or delete the user account first. As with deleting users, deleting groups can leave "orphaned" files on the computer. It's usually best to delete the files or assign them other group ownership using the chown or chgrp commands.
Reference: Roderick W. Smith. Sybex Linux + Study Guide: page 274.
Incorrect Answers:
A: It is not necessary to assign new login names to the members listed in the /etc/group file.
C: It is not necessary to assign new login names to the members listed in the /etc/group file.
D: It is only necessary to change the users' default group if the default group is the dataproject
group.

NO 4:
All groups are defined in the /etc/group file. Each entry contains four fields in the following order.
A. groupname, password, GID, member list
B. GID, groupname, password, member list
C. groupname, GID, password, member list
D. GID, member list, groupname, password
Answer: A
Explanation: A typical line in the /etc/group file looks like the following:
project1:x:501:sally,sam,ellen,george
Each field is separated from the others by a colon. The meanings of the four fields are as follows:
Group name The first field (project1 in the preceding example) is the name of the group.
Password The second field (x in the preceding example) is the group password. Distributions that use shadow passwords typically place an x in this field; others place the encrypted password directly in this field.
GID The group ID number goes in this field.
User list The final field is a comma-separated list of group members.
Reference: Roderick W. Smith. Sybex Linux + Study Guide: page 273.
Incorrect Answers:
B: This is the incorrect order of fields.
C: This is the incorrect order of fields.
D: This is the incorrect order of fields.

NO 5:
You issue the following command
useradd -m bobm
But the user cannot logon. What is the problem?
A. You need to assign a password to bobm's account using the passwd command.
B. You need to create bobm's home directory and set the appropriate permissions.
C. You need to edit the /etc/passwd file and assign a shell of bobm's account.
D. The username must be at least five characters long.
Answer: A
Explanation:
When you add a user, the account is disabled until you specify a password for the account.
You can use the -p option with the useradd command, but that requires you to enter an
encrypted password. For this reason it is easier to use the passwd command. This enables
you to enter a plain text password which will then be automatically encrypted.
Reference: Roderick W. Smith. Sybex Linux + Study Guide: page 262.
Incorrect Answers:
B: The home directory will be created automatically with the useradd command.
C: The user will use the default shell.
D: The username does not have to be five characters long.

NO 6:
You create a new user account by adding the following line to your /etc/passwd file.
Bobm:baddog:501:501:Bob Morris:/home/bobm:/bin/bash
Bob calls you and tells you that he cannot logon. You verify that he is using the correct
username and password. What is the problem?
A. The UID and GID cannot be identical.
B. You cannot have spaces in the line unless they are surrounded with double quotes.
C. You cannot directly enter the password; rather you have to use the passwd command to
assign a password to the user.
D. The username is too short, it must be at least six characters long.
Answer: C
Explanation: The password saved in the /etc/passwd file is encrypted. For this reason, you
cannot directly enter the password in this file. Rather, you must use the passwd command.
The passwd command will take the plain text password and save it in encrypted form in
the /etc/passwd file.
Reference: Roderick W. Smith. Sybex Linux + Study Guide: page 262.
Incorrect Answers:
A: The UID and the GID can be the same.
B: You can have spaces because each field is separated by a colon (:).
D: The username does not have to be at least six characters long.

NO 7:
Which field in the passwd file is used to define the user's default shell?
Answer: command
Explanation: The last field, known as the command field or login command, is used to specify what shell the user will use when he/she logs in.

NO 8:
There are seven fields in the /etc/passwd file. Which of the following lists all the fields in the
correct order?
A. username, UID, password, GID, home directory, command, comment
B. username, password, UID, GID, comment, home directory, command
C. UID, username, GID, home directory, password, comment, command
D. username, password, UID, group name, GID, home directory, comment
Answer: B
Explanation: The first field contains the username. The second field contains the encrypted
password or an 'x' if a shadow password file is used. The third field is the User ID number.
The fourth field is the primary Group ID number. The fifth field is the comments field. The sixth field is the home directory field. The seventh field is the command field which specifies the user's default shell.
Reference: http://www.unet.univie.ac.at/aix/files/aixfiles/passwd_etc.htm
Incorrect Answers:
A: The order of these fields is not correct.
C: The order of these fields is not correct.
D: The order of these fields is not correct.

NO 9:
What file defines the levels of messages written to system log files?
Answer: syslog.conf
Explanation: The file /etc/syslog.conf contains information used by the system log daemon,
syslogd to forward a system message to appropriate log files and/or users.
Reference: http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/cgi-bin/man-cgi?syslog.conf+4

NO 10:
Which utility can you use to automate rotation of logs?
Answer: logrotate
Explanation: The logrotate utility is used to manipulate log files. This includes the rotation
of log files and the creation of new log files.
Reference: http://www.oreillynet.com/linux/cmd/l/logrotate.html

NO 11:
What is the name and path of the main system log?
Answer: /var/log/messages
Explanation: Most system log files are stored in subdirectories of the /var/log directory.
The main system log is /var/log/messages. An example /var/log/messages file can be found
here: http://www-oss.fnal.gov/projects/fermilinux/611/adminclass/examples/messages.html
Reference: Roderick W. Smith. Sybex Linux + Study Guide: Page 293/613.

NO 12:
What is the name and path of the default configuration file used by the syslogd daemon?
Answer: /etc/syslog.conf
Explanation: The file /etc/syslog.conf contains information used by the system log daemon,
syslogd to forward a system message to appropriate log files and/or users.
Reference: http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/cgi-bin/man-cgi?syslog.conf+4

NO 13:
You want to ensure that your system is not overloaded with users running multiple scheduled
jobs. A policy has been established that only the system administrators can create any scheduled
jobs. It is your job to implement this policy. How are you going to do this?
A. Create an empty file called /etc/cron.deny.
B. Create a file called /etc/cron.allow which contains the names of those allowed to schedule
jobs.
C. Create a file called /etc/cron.deny containing all regular usernames.
D. Create two empty files called /etc/cron.allow and /etc/cron.deny.
Answer: B
Explanation: Cron has a built in feature of allowing you to specify who may, and who may
not use it. It does this by the use of /etc/cron.allow and /etc/cron.deny files. These files work
the same way as the allow/deny files for other daemons do. To stop a user using cron, just
put their name in cron.deny, to allow a user put their name in the cron.allow.
Reference: http://sharedhosting.net/support/crontab/man.html
Incorrect Answers:
A: An empty cron.deny file will not prevent users creating scheduled (cron) jobs.
C: Creating a file called /etc/cron.deny containing all regular usernames is a long way of doing
it. It would be much quicker to use a cron.allow file.
D: An empty cron.allow file would not allow anyone (including the administrators) to create
cron jobs.

NO 14:
When defining a cronjob, there are five fields used to specify when the job will run. What are
these fields and what is the correct order?
A. minute, hour, day of week, day of month, month.
B. minute, hour, month, day of month, day of week.
C. minute, hour, day of month, month, day of week.
D. hour, minute, day of month, month, day of week.
Answer: C
Explanation: The correct order for the five fields are:
minute (0-59),
hour (0-23),
day of the month (1-31),
month of the year (1-12),
day of the week (0-6 with 0=Sunday).
There is a sixth field. This is used to specify the job that will run at the specified time.
Reference: http://sharedhosting.net/support/crontab/man.html
Incorrect Answers:
A: These fields are not in the correct order.
B: These fields are not in the correct order.
D: These fields are not in the correct order.

NO 15:
You company does not want to start a mailing list for each of its departments and would rather
have an alias for each department. What would you put in the /etc/aliases file to make this work?
A. alias_name: read:/ect/mail/alias-list
B. alias_name: :include:/etc/mail/alias-list
C. alias_name: read-from:/etc/mail/alias-list
D. alias_name: include-from:/etc/mail/alias-list
Answer: B
Explanation: The /etc/aliases file is used to redirect mail when the mail is sent to an alias.
For example, you could have an alias named 'accounts'. When mail is sent to 'accounts', it
gets redirected to each member of the accounts department. You can list the recipients on
the same line as the alias or you can 'include' the names listed in another file.
Reference: http://nscp.upenn.edu/aix4.3html/aixbman/commadmn/ml_alias.htm
Incorrect Answers:
A: To redirect mail to the names listed in a file, you would enter ':include: <filename>', not 'read
<filename>'.
C: To redirect mail to the names listed in a file, you would enter ':include: <filename>', not
'read-from <filename>'.
D: To redirect mail to the names listed in a file, you would enter ':include: <filename>', not
'include-from <filename>'.

NO 16:
How would you specify in your zone file that the zone is maintained by hostmaster@foo.com?
A. You specify this when you register the domain.
B. Put "hostmaster.foo.com" as the second field in the SOA record.
C. Create a " MAIL TO hostmaster@foo.com" record for the zone.
D. Put "hostmaster@foo.com" as the second field in the SOA record.
Answer: B
Explanation: The SOA (Start of Authority) records contains a field that specifies who the
zone is maintained by. The email address is listed with a '.' instead of '@' as required by
DNS standards.
Reference: http://docsrv.caldera.com/NET_tcpip/dnsT.servconf.html
Incorrect Answers:
A: You don't specify this when you register the domain.
C: You don't create a 'MAIL TO <email address>'.
D: The email address is listed with a '.' instead of '@' as required by DNS standards.

NO 17:
Internal users of your company's website complain that at peak time they can connect to your
server only with extreme difficulty and often receive a timeout error. You find however that the
system load is negligible, plenty of extra memory and bandwidth are available, no hardware or
line problem is involved and that no errors are logged. What is the most likely cause of this
issue?
A. The value of the "MinSpareServers" parameter is too low.
B. The value of the "MaxClients" parameter is too low.
C. The value of the "MaxRequestPerChild" parameter is too low.
D. The value of the "MaxKeepAliveRequest" parameter is too low
E. The value of the "StartServers" parameter is too low.
Answer: B
Explanation: The MaxClients parameter configures the maximum number of
authenticated clients which may be logged into a server or anonymous account. Once this
limit is reached, additional clients attempting to authenticate will be disconnected.
Increasing the MaxClients parameter will allow more connections, thus eliminating the
timeouts.
Reference: http://proftpd.linux.co.uk/docs/directives/linked/config_ref_MaxClients.html
Incorrect Answers:
A: This parameter is not the cause of the timeout errors.
C: This parameter is not the cause of the timeout errors.
D: This parameter is not the cause of the timeout errors.

NO 18:
You have implemented your firewall rules, and the firewall can connect to the outside, but no
one behind the firewall can connect to the Internet. What might be the problem?
A. The users are clueless, show them how it's done.
B. The OUTPUT chain policy is DENY, it must be ACCEPT or no outgoing traffic will leave the host.
C. IP forwarding is turned off in /proc/sys/net/ipv4.
D. The firewall can connect to the Internet, so systems behind it are OK. The problem must be elsewhere.
Answer: A
Explanation: IP forwarding is disabled by default.

NO 19:
What is the usual mode for the /tmp directory?
A. 0777
B. 0755
C. 7777
D. 1777
E. 0222
Answer: D
Explanation: The usual mode (permissions) for the /tmp directory is read, write and execute for everybody. Read has a value of 4, write has a value of 2 and execute has a value of 1. When you add these values together you get 7. In this answer (1777), the first 7 means rwx permissions for the file owner. The second 7 means rwx permission for the user's group and the third 7 means rwx permission for everyone else. The 1 means 'sticky'. This means that although everyone has full permissions on the directory, a user cannot delete files that the user doesn't own.
Reference: http://www.comptechdoc.org/os/linux/usersguide/linux_ugfilesp.html
http://lightfocus.com/ebook/m020312.htm
Incorrect Answers:
A: This sticky bit (1) is set by default on the /tmp directory.
B: Everyone has rwx (7) permission on the /tmp directory.
C: The first 7 is invalid.

NO 20:
You have just finished setting up your sshd server. Now you need to state which hosts are
allowed access to the system. Which is the correct option to enable this in the
/etc/ssh/sshd_config file?
A. AllowIP IP_ADDRESS IP_ADDRESS
B. AllowHost IP_ADDRESS IP_ADDRESS
C. EnableIP IP_ADDRESS IP_ADDRESS
D. EnableHosts HOSTNAME HOSTNAME
Answer: B
Explanation: You can specify which hosts are allowed access to system by using the
AllowHost parameter in the /etc/ssh/sshd_config file. AllowHost is followed by the
hostnames or IP addresses of the systems which are allowed access.
Reference: http://www.linuxchix.org/pipermail/techtalk/2000-July/007737.html
Incorrect Answers:
A: The correct option is AllowHost, not Allow IP.
C: The correct option is AllowHost, not EnableIP.
D: The correct option is AllowHost, not EnableHosts.

NO 21:
You have an extensive collection of icons in /usr/local/lib/icons/*.gif, which you want to make
available as http://your.server.com/image/*.gif. What is the easiest way to do this?
A. Use a Symlink directive in httpd.conf.
B. Add "Alias /image /usr/local/lib/icons" to httpd.conf.
C. Use a Redirect directive in httpd.conf.
D. Create $DOCUMENT_ROOT/image and copy the files.
Answer: B
Explanation: When configuring a web server, you can use an alias to point to a directory.
You would specify the alias in the httpd.conf file which is the configuration file for the http
daemon. The line "Alias /image /usr/local/lib/icons" would make the /usr/local/lib/icons
directory available using the 'image' alias so <servername>/image would point to
<servername>/usr/local/lib/icons.
Reference: http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/debian/chapter/ch12_02.html
Incorrect Answers:
A: There is no Symlink directive in httpd.conf. Instead, aliases are used.
C: A redirect would make a request for one file return a different file.
D: It is not necessary to copy the files to the document root folder. The files can stay at their
original path and an alias used to point to the path.

NO 22:
IP address resolution should be handled by DNS, NIS, and the local /etc/host file (in that order).
If any of the services returns an address not found message the search should halt. Which of the
following entries in /ect/nsswitch.conf would achieve this configuration?
A. hosts: dns nis files
B. hosts: dns [NOTFOUND=continue] nis [NOTFOUND=continue] files
C. hosts: dns [RETURN] nis [RETURN] files
D. hosts: dns [NOTFOUND=return] nis [NOTFOUND=return] files
E. hosts: dns [CONTINUE] nis [CONTINUE] files
Answer: D
Explanation: The entry, "hosts: dns [NOTFOUND=return] nis [NOTFOUND=return]
files" specifies that DNS should be used first, then NIS then 'files' which means files such as
/etc/hosts. The "[NOTFOUND=return]" option means that if the service cannot resolve the
query, a file not found error is returned. The next service is only tried if the preceding
service is unavailable. For example, NIS would only be tried if the DNS server was down.
Reference: http://w3.pppl.gov/cgi-bin/man?page=nsswitch.conf&section=4
Incorrect Answers:
A: To halt the search if any of the search services return a file not found message, you need the
"[NOTFOUND=return]" option.
B: To halt the search if any of the search services return a file not found message, you need the
"[NOTFOUND=return]" option.
C: To halt the search if any of the search services return a file not found message, you need the
"[NOTFOUND=return]" option.
E: To halt the search if any of the search services return a file not found message, you need the
"[NOTFOUND=return]" option.

NO 23:
In a PAM configuration file, a sufficient control allows access:
A. Immediately on success, if no previous required or requisite control failed.
B. Immediately on success, regardless of other controls.
C. After waiting if all other controls return success.
D. Immediately, but only if the user is root.
Answer: D
Reference: http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/libs/pam/Linux-PAM-html/pam-4.html

NO 24:
When setting up an alias in Sendmail that forwards mail messages to a host in a different
domain, what is the syntax of the /etc/aliases entry?
A. bob@domain.com : robert@newdomain.com
B. bob: domain.com : robert@newdomain.com
C. bob: robert@newdomain.com
D. bob:redirect:robert@newdomain.com
E. bob robert@newdomain.com.
Answer: C
Explanation: To forward email to a host in a different domain, you simply specify the alias
(in this case 'bob') followed by a colon (:) followed by a space then the address to be
forwarded to (in this case robert@newdomain.com).
Reference: http://nscp.upenn.edu/aix4.3html/aixbman/commadmn/ml_alias.htm
Incorrect Answers:
A: You are creating an alias called bob so you don't need to specify a full email address as the
alias.
B: In this answer, the mail would be forwarded to domain.com and robert@newdomain.com.
D: You don't need to enter the word 'redirect'.
E: The alias must be followed by a colon.

NO 25:
Which line in the aliases file will cause the program msgfilter to filter on mail arriving for the
user called msg?
A. msg: "/usr/local/msgfilter"
B. msg: "|/usr/local/msgfilter"
C. msg: "exec /usr/local/msgfilter"
D. msg: "filter /usr/local/msgfilter"
E. msg: "F /usr/local/msgfilter"
Answer: B
Explanation:
The pipe symbol ( | ) is a command redirector. It is used to take the output of one command and use it as input for another command. In this case, email sent to 'msg' is the output which is piped (redirected) to /usr/local/msgfilter.
Reference: http://www.netti.hu/doc/LinuxShellScript/rpf.htm
Incorrect Answers:
A: You need the pipe symbol to make the msgfilter program take the email as its input.
C: You need the pipe symbol to make the msgfilter program take the email as its input.
D: You need the pipe symbol to make the msgfilter program take the email as its input.
E: You need the pipe symbol to make the msgfilter program take the email as its input.

NO 26:
When running INN, how do you force an update of the news groups you are monitoring?
A. Stop and restart innd.
B. /usr/bin/newsfeed
C. /usr/bin/innfeed
D. /usr/bin/dlnews
E. /usr/bin/innd -dl -news
Answer: C
Explanation:
Reference: http://linuxcommand.org/man_pages/innfeed1.html

NO 27:
You have a computer with Windows 95 installed and want to install Linux on it.
However, there is no free space available. How could you manage to install Linux on this
computer with the least amount of effort?
A. Use fips to resize the partition containing Windows 95.
B. Repartition the hard drive; reinstall Windows 95 and then install Linux.
C. You cannot run Windows 95 and Linux on the same computer.
D. Create a directory under Windows 95 and install Linux in that directory.
Answer: A
Explanation: FIPS is a partition resizing tool. It can reduce the size of the Windows 95
partition without losing any data, thus freeing up enough space to create a Linux partition.
Reference: Roderick W. Smith. Sybex Linux + Study Guide: Page 43.
Incorrect Answers:
B. It is not necessary to reinstall Windows 95.
C. You can run Windows 95 and Linux on the same computer.
D. You cannot install Linux into a subdirectory in Windows 95.

NO 28:
You are creating a new partition in preparation for installing Linux. You want to have five
different partitions. You have successfully created four partitions, but are unable to create the
fifth one. What is the problem?
A. Your hard drive is not large enough for more than four partitions.
B. You need to create the swap partition last.
C. You created four primary partitions.
D. Linux cannot be installed on more then four partitions.
Answer: C
Explanation: A hard disk can only contain up to four primary partitions. If you want more
than four partitions on your hard disk, you'll need to create up to three primary partitions
and one 'extended' partition. The extended partition can contain multiple logical partitions
thus enabling you to have more than four partitions on the disk.
Reference: http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/mini/Install-Strategies/x72.html
Incorrect Answers:
A: Assuming you know what you're doing, you would know if your disk had any free space on it and would only attempt to create another partition if you knew the disk had free space.
B: You don't need to create the swap partition last.
D: Linux can be installed on more than four partitions.

NO 29:
When looking at the /etc/passwd file, you notice that all the password fields contain 'x'. What
does this mean?
A. The password is encrypted.
B. That you are using shadow password.
C. That all passwords are blank.
D. That all passwords have expired.
Answer: B
Explanation: Linux distributions that use shadow password files typically place an 'x' in the password field in the /etc/passwd file.
Reference: Roderick W. Smith. Sybex Linux + Study Guide: Page 273.
Incorrect Answers:
A: If the password is encrypted, you can see the encrypted password.
C: An x does not indicate a blank password.
D: An x does not indicate that a password has expired.

NO 30:
After Bob leaves the company you issue the command userdel bob. Although his entry in the
/etc/passwd file has been deleted, his home directory is still there. What command could you
have used to make sure that his home directory was also deleted?
A. userdel -m bob
B. userdel -u bob
C. userdel -l bob
D. userdel -r bob
Answer: D
Explanation: The -r option used with the userdel command is used to delete the users home
directory and any files in the directory.
Reference: http://www.oreillynet.com/linux/cmd/u/userdel.html
Incorrect Answers:
A: The -m option is invalid.
B: The -u option is invalid.
C: The -l option is invalid.


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